Microscopy & Microtechniques
How Have Monkeys Rewritten History?
Oct 17 2016 Read 1020 Times
Humans and monkeys have a common ancestor. It’s not quite the “humans evolved from monkeys” tale that misconceived folklore would have you believe, but it’s based on sound evidence from decades of research. As time goes on, we’re piecing together the puzzle even more. But a new discovery might have thrown a spanner in the works, or more aptly a ‘tool-like flake’.
A landmark event
Years and years of wide-ranging research has given us a timeline of milestones through evolution. One of these, which is particularly prominent, is the development of tools. Until now, we believed that flakes of stone resembling tools were evidence of an advanced species.
The creation of a tool, however simple, requires some degree of planning, advanced (human-like) cognition, as well as a high level of hand co-ordination. It’s this which lead archaeologists and historians to assume tools marked a point where humans began to diverge from their ape ancestors. If we could trace the date of tools, we could trace the date when humans began to develop.
“Our understanding of the new technologies adopted by our early ancestors helps shape our view of human evolution. The emergence of sharp-edged stone tools that were fashioned and hammered to create a cutting tool was a big part of that story,” explains Oxford’s Dr Michael Haslam, leader of the project.
However, when scientists from Oxford, UCL and Sao Paolo observed Capuchin monkeys, they found something a bit contradictory. The monkeys picked up stones and used them to hammer other embedded rocks. It’s thought to be a practice to remove nutrients from the stones, but it actually caused their hammer stones to fracture and flakes to break off. Do you see where this is going?
Collecting and analysing the fragments of broken stone, the scientists found a lot of them to have surprisingly smooth fractures. These were the kind of features we had previously assumed to be uniquely human creations. Their findings support the idea that the tool-like flakes were actually produced by a wider range of hominins, rather than just primitive humans.
Separated by the function
Despite these findings, there is still evidence of how the humans used the tools. Archaeologists assert that this is what separates the hominins from monkeys. How do we know? Lithic microwear analysis allows scientists to study the traces of wear on the tools we discover. However, new, innovative methods could prove to be more effective with such limited materials, as discussed in ‘Surface Tomography and Metrology in the Quest to Understand Prehistoric Man: An Application of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy’.
Do you like or dislike what you have read? Why not post a comment to tell others / the manufacturer and our Editor what you think. To leave comments please complete the form below. Providing the content is approved, your comment will be on screen in less than 24 hours. Leaving comments on product information and articles can assist with future editorial and article content. Post questions, thoughts or simply whether you like the content.
In This Edition Articles - Determination of heroin in street drug samples with printable surface enhanced Raman scattering (P-SERS) - Advances in Protein Sample Preparation: Centrifugation i...
View all digital editions
Jan 16 2019 Tokyo, Japan
Jan 28 2019 Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre
Jan 30 2019 Tokyo, Japan
Jan 31 2019 Paris, France
Feb 02 2019 Washington, DC, USA.